- 1 Sensory development in the child
- 2 The development of the perception of space in the child
- 3 The perception of the form in the child
- 4 The perception of time in the child
- 5 The development of the perception and observation of the child
The sensory development in the child
At birth the receiving devices in the child, they are ready for their function.
Sensory pathways ripen in the last months of pregnancy, first those of the tactile and muscular sense, but also those of the sense of smell and taste, and later those of the visual sense and finally those of the auditory sense. However, in the cortex some parts are ready for use, at the time of birth, but others develop after birth. This is why we cannot talk about a development of the sensory organs and their specific activity, which is manifested in perception.
According to Krasnogorski and Rählmann the children from the sixth month of life, from the period in which they begin to take an object, differently to all colors, therefore it is said that they already distinguished them.
However, these experiments have not taken into account that waves of different lengths produce sensations not only of color, but also of a certain clarity. According to the Purkine phenomenon, in twilight vision, as in daytime vision in adults with congenital color blindness, the degree of relative clarity of the collars increases according to their distance from the red end of the spectrum; For this it is possible that the infant does not distinguish colors as such, but only their degree of luminosity.
Peiper examined the sensitivity to the degrees of luminosity in premature infants, it was seen that in them the same deviation from the clarity or luminosity of the red to violet end of the spectrum was observed than in adults., Thus it showed that in humans developed, before birth, the faculty of sensation or sensitivity to degrees of luminosity. It assumes that the auditory organ in the newborn, and even in the fetus, is sensitive to acoustic stimuli. Krasnogorski, with the method of conditioned reflexes, found that the infant still does not distinguish the tones or chords yet. Children aged seven to eight months can distinguish the smell of camphor from perfumes. The skin sensitivity reaches a great differentiation very prematurely. Not only during the preschool age, but also in the school there is a further development and improvement of acoustic optical differentiations. According to Foucalt, the optical and auditory acuity increases in schoolchildren from six to fourteen and fifteen ... at that time it exceeds the optical and auditory acuity of adults. The distinction of clarity or luminosity increases from six to seventeen years (according to Gilbert) by two and a half times.
The contradiction that exists in the different data on the sensory development of the child is explained by the fact that the maturity of the sensory organs, is linked in the first place, to the faculty of using the organs better due to exercise, since it plays an important role in the sensory development of the child the faculty to interpret, with greater intelligence, the sensory data. This fact is related to the general intellectual development of the child.
The child's intellectual development is not due to his individual sensitivity, too limited for this purpose despite the existence of all types of sensations, but to social knowledge, which through the language and treatment of human beings among themselves It becomes the personal property of every individual.
Within the development of the child's sensations and perceptions, the development of the perception of space and time plays an important role.
The development of the perception of space in the child
The child recognizes the space to the extent that he learns to master it.
Baldwin, Stern, distinguish in children a "primitive space" or "oral space", a "near space" or "grab" and a "distant space", which the child learns to dominate and gradually discover, as that learns to move by itself.
The distant space is at first little differentiated. Due to the immaturity of adaptation and convergence, one-year-old children do not even perceive objects that are distant, which constitute for them only an undetermined background.
The evaluation of the distance also relates the evaluation of the dimensions of the different objects. For small distances and simple figures there is already a constancy of dimension or magnitude, in the second year of age. The exact assessment of the dimensions of an object in different alternatives coincides with the understanding of the shortening of the perspective of the objects. The understanding of the perspectives represented is the most complex aspect of spatial representation and develops later.
The essential point of the general development of the understanding of space is the transition of the calculation system (coordinates) fixed in the body itself to a system with freely mobile reference points.
The perception of the form in the child
The child perceives the concrete objective forms very soon. In preschool children, form is already one of the fundamental factors of knowledge that discerns things. If preschool children are taught an abstract geometric shape, they "objectify" it for the most part, that is, they give it a naively objective interpretation: a circle is a ball.
Since color is predominant in preschool, it is necessary when working with these children to take advantage of the influence or efficacy of color. But at the same time, it is no less important to orient children's attention to differences in forms, which is necessary for the study of reading and later the mastery of geometric foundations.
For the correct perception of the form, the development of the constancy of the perception of the form has essential meaning, by altering or changing the optical or visual angle.
Children perceive the form at the beginning with relative independence of the situation. The representation of the numbers presupposes in the preschool child both the counting and the immediate perception of the objects. The development of quantity perception occurs, essentially, as follows:
a) the child perceives a group of objects and reproduces them taking into account their specific qualitative characteristics.
b) The perception of a group of objects taking into account only the qualitative characteristics happens in the further development of the capacity of abstraction to the perceptual form, in which the spatial arrangement of the objects in partial or total abstraction is taken into account of its specific qualitative peculiarities.
c) The child goes through the development of the representation of numbers, and the mastery of arithmetic operations to the perception of a group of objects, for which part of the calculation of the objects that remain or abstract from their qualitative spatial peculiarities.
The perception of time in the child
The words now, today, yesterday and tomorrow may indicate in their use, each time a different sector of real time.
At premature evolutionary levels, the child is oriented in time based on essentially qualitative extratemporal signs.
The further development of the aptitudes for a more correct location and understanding of the order of succession is related to the awareness of the causal dependencies and the domain of the quantitative relations of the magnitudes of time.
The development of perception and observation of the child
The perception of the child develops within the process of oriented activity, practical objective action, play, creative activity, etc., it extends and deepens and becomes an independent activity of observation.
Perception is highly dependent on emotional-motor and emotional reactions.. The emotional factors of the child are linked to the intellectual factors.
The schematic and extremely coordinating perception of many aspects of reality, which the child does not yet understand, exists alongside a more divided and linked perception of a few aspects of reality. Applied to different contexts, several forms of perception exist simultaneously in the child. To the same extent that the circle of interest and knowledge of the child is expanding, his thinking develops.
With the development of perception, scientific reasoning also develops, a broader system of theoretical knowledge is becoming increasingly dominant, which leads to the development of higher forms of generalized perception.
The perception full of complex sense and unusual psychological situations and the perception of complicated acts and facts, which reveal the character of the acting person, is usually formed later, between twelve and fourteen, when there is a greater interest in psychological relationships and a greater and deeper understanding.
In the course of the child's intellectual development, the formation and development of observation have a special meaning.
Binet checks three successive stages:
- the stage of the enumeration of isolated objects (3 to 7 years)
- the stage of the description (from 7 years old)
- the stage of interpretation, an image is perceived and interpreted as a sensitive unit.
At each level of its development, the child can capture both the whole and the parts. The different levels and forms of perception exist in the child as a rule as a rule and do not accumulate externally or juxtapose or overlap.
The true levels of observation, which reflect the levels of the child's intellectual development, are levels of interpretation.
The interpretation content is modified, which is understood by children at different levels of observation and the depth of cognitive insight into it. We distinguish: the comparative interpretation, the conclusive interpretation, the conclusive interpretation that also describes the abstract characteristics.
New forms of observation are developed within the process of teaching and education, which are processes, where there is a domain of new objective content.
Understanding Sensory Development. //www.nhsdg.scot.nhs.uk/Departments_and_Services/Child_Occupational_Therapy/Documents/Understanding_Sensory_Development.pdf
Basic sensory development Incredible Horizons.com. //incrediblehorizons.com/sensory-development.htm
Vestibular visual coordination. Associates of occupational therapy. www.otawatertown.com/pdfs/vis-vestibular.pdf
Sensory development: touch, taste and smell, sensations of movement, auditory system, visual system, sensory systems in concert: sensation of body position. JRank.org. //social.jrank.org/pages/563/Sensory-Development.html
ERIKA CRUZ TORRES